Originally: Gondwana

Lithospheric plates, which formed a single continent called Pangaea , began to disintegrate in the early Upper Carboniferous into two subsets: ( Laurasia [ which included the Europe, Asia and North America continents ] North and South Gondwana ) . This is the beginning of the rearrangement of continents , which will give the current face of the Earth.


Gathering in one piece and in the Southern Hemisphere continents between the Upper Carboniferous ( about 300 million years ago) and the Lower Jurassic (about 200 million years ) and including peninsular India , the island of Madagascar , Africa , Australia, South America and Antarctica .
Geological Gondwana series are characterized at the base by glacial formations striated pebbles ( tills ) at the end of the Carboniferous . The lower Permian glaciers disappear and Glossopteris flora ( fossil species of ferns ) with formation of coal beds began to prosper , indicating a humid climate and a special reptile fauna . The Upper Permian , the climate changes again and becomes desert with the appearance of rubéfiés deposits.
The series of Gondwana Glossopteris were studied originally in 1872 by HB Medlicott in the central Deccan (India ), former countries of Gonds , hence their name. This is the Austrian geologist Edward Suess , who in 1885 in his book The Face of the Earth ( Das Antlitz der Erde ) connects , in view of paleontological analogies , India, Madagascar and Central and Southern Africa , by land bridges because it is creationist like most of his contemporaries, and gives the whole name of Gondwanaland . Subsequently , there shall associate the other three continental blocks .
By 1912 , the German meteorologist Alfred Wegener there is an argument in support of his theory of ” continental drift ” (or continental drift ) and brings together in a supercontinent called Pangea, Gondwana to the south and Laurasia , the north ( that Suess called ” Atlantis “) , including North America , Europe and Asia. This mega grouping together all the continents begin to disintegrate from the Triassic (+ / 245 million years ago ) to give , as a result of continental drift , the configuration of oceans and continents today .


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