While some Europeans are threatened by insecurity, France decided to launch in 1895 an expeditionary force to Antananarivo . The campaign leading to the Treaty of 1 October 1895 , which confirms the ” protectorate ” of France. The monarchy is not yet removed, but the treaty takes him all authority to the Resident General . The law of August 6, 1896 states: ” Is French colony declared the island of Madagascar with the islands dependent .” The monarchy was abolished February 28, 1897 . Queen Ranavalona III was deposited and then exiled in Algiers. The beginnings of French colonization is marked by a man who laid the foundation of a vigorous policy whose aims are primarily economic .
This man called Joseph Simon Gallieni (photo Wikipedia) , became Governor General of Madagascar , shall exercise all the powers between September 1896 and May 1905. We can summarize some outstanding shares of its policy. ” Pacification ” of the entire island and scope of the traditional institution of the Merina ” Fokon’olona ” dismantling of the local oligarchy and the abolition of the privileges of the “big ” . Elimination of foreign competition in trade . Significant and lasting achievements in the fields of communication ( roads , railways, port facilities, telegraph network ) . Foundation School of Medicine in 1897 , and the Medical Assistance Indigenous working in the provinces. Development of a secular school where learning is rather to technical areas to train workers or officials . In addition, in 1896 the Malagasy become ” subjects French ” but non-citizens , therefore having no political rights.
Faced with the colonial government, local resistance develops . In 1895 , the ” Menalamba ” nationalist and traditionalist insurgent group , advocating a return to the past, the conservation of ancestral religion and loyalty to the monarchy lead their actions against the French until 1898. This resistance is not always organized a manifestation of rejection of ” Fanjakana ” or colonial authority established tax benefits ( work of general interest ) , requisitions populations . This rejection occurs , occasionally, by the practice of bush fires, cattle theft , vagrancy , refusal to send children to school or attend health posts . The elites themselves, who incorporated the principle of “progress” and believing promotion opportunities through education, are disappointed by the lack of access to equal rights , social and political .
The French naturalization is one of the first demands of the Malagasy . The intransigence of the colonial power radicalized the movement towards independence wills . The insurrection of 1947, severely repressed , a milestone in the struggle for independence. In September 1958 , the Malagasy vote in favor of the proposed General De Gaulle community. June 26, 1960, independence was proclaimed.